Thursday, 8 January 2015

The scientific method (By Ryan)



Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

It is based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning, the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.

Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features distinguish scientific inquiry from other methodologies of knowledge.

Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena, and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses.

These steps must be repeatable in order to predict dependably any future results.

Theories that encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many hypotheses together in a coherent structure.

This in turn may help form new hypotheses or place groups of hypotheses into context.

Among other facets shared by the various fields of inquiry is the conviction that the process must be objective to reduce a biased interpretation of the results.

Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so it is available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, thereby allowing other researchers the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them.

This practice, called full disclosure, also allows statistical measures of the reliability of these data to be established.

The Scientific method (By Lim Yi)

Q:Examples of scientific discoveries
credit:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_multiple_discoveries
The atom bomb was independently thought of by Leó Szilárd,[30] Józef Rotblat[31] and others.
Chloroform – Samuel Guthrie in the United States (July 1831), and a few months later Eugène Soubeiran (France) and Justus von Liebig (Germany), all of them using variations of the haloform reaction.
Oxygen – Carl Wilhelm Scheele (Uppsala, 1773), Joseph Priestley (Wiltshire, 1774). The term was coined by Antoine Lavoisier (1777).
Scientific mode of inquiry as used by scientists
credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method#Scientific_inquiry
Scientific inquiry generally aims to obtain knowledge in the form of testable explanations that can be used to predict the results of future experiments. This allows scientists to gain a better understanding of the topic being studied, and later be able to use that understanding to intervene in its causal mechanisms (such as to cure disease). The better an explanation is at making predictions, the more useful it frequently can be, and the more likely it is to continue explaining a body of evidence better than its alternatives. The most successful explanations, which explain and make accurate predictions in a wide range of circumstances, are often called scientific theories.

Most experimental results do not result in large changes in human understanding; improvements in theoretical scientific understanding is typically the result of a gradual process of development over time, sometimes across different domains of science.[44] Scientific models vary in the extent to which they have been experimentally tested and for how long, and in their acceptance in the scientific community. In general, explanations become accepted over time as evidence accumulates on a given topic, and the explanation in question is more powerful than its alternatives at explaining the evidence. Often the explanations are altered over time, or explanations are combined to produce new explanations.

The Scientific method (By Jaryl)


What is the Scientific Method?

There are different forms of this scientific method. Some are just like my graphic above, some have other steps in there. They are all generally the same. Here is a very basic description.
  • Start with a problem. Why would you do something scientific if not to look at a particular problem or question right? Example: which brand of battery lasts the longest?
  • Research. You can’t do any science without first looking at what has already been done on this topic. How else could you stand on the shoulders of giants?
  • Create a hypothesis. This is an educated guess. Example: I think that the Duracell batteries will last the longest.
  • Perform the experiment. How can you have a science project without any data? Example: connect different batteries to lightbulbs and see which one lasts the longest.
  • Analyze the data. You have to do something to the data. If it is just plain data, it isn’t science. Example: average the times for different batteries to keep the bulbs glowing. Oh, if you need to, you can go back to your research and start the process over. This is sort of like using your last bird in Angry Birds but you didn’t knock over all the pigs. You start over.
  • Create a conclusion. I recommend always starting your conclusion with “my hypothesis was correct”. Example: the average time for Duracell batteries was the longest. They are the best.

What is science & the scientific method ? (By Stevanus)

What is Science & the Scientific Method?

Science is a systematic and logical approach to discovering how things in the universe work. It is derived from the Latin word “scientia,” which translates to knowledge. Unlike the arts, science aims for measurable results through testing and analysis. Science is based on fact, not opinion or preferences. The process of science is designed to challenge ideas through research. It is not meant to prove theories, but rule out alternative explanations until a likely conclusion is reached.

The scientific method

When conducting research, scientists observe the scientific method to collect measurable, empirical evidence in an experiment related to a hypothesis (often in the form of an if/then statement), the results aiming to support or contradict a theory.
The steps of the scientific method go something like this:


  • Make an observation or observations.
  • Ask questions about the observations and gather information.
  • Form a hypothesis — a tentative description of what’s been observed, and make predictions based on that hypothesis.
  • Test the hypothesis and predictions in an experiment that can be reproduced.
  • Analyze the data and draw conclusions; accept or reject the hypothesis or modify the hypothesis if necessary.
  • Reproduce the experiment until there are no discrepancies between observations and theory.
Some key underpinnings to the scientific method:
  • The hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable.
  • Research must involve deductive reasoning, not inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is the process of using true premises to reach a logical true conclusion.
  • An experiment should include a dependent variable (which does not change) and an independent variable (which does change).
  • An experiment should include an experimental group and a control group. The control group is what the experimental group is compared against.

Scientific theories and laws

The scientific method and science in general can be frustrating. A theory is almost never proven. A few theories do become scientific laws (such as the law of gravity) and laws are generally considered to be without exception — though in fact even some laws have been modified over time after further testing found discrepancies.
This does not mean theories are not meaningful. For a hypothesis to become a theory, rigorous testing must occur, typically across multiple disciplines by separate groups of scientists. Saying something is “just a theory” is a lay person’s term that has no relationship to science, because in science, a theory is something that is very well supported by observation and experimentation.

Monday, 5 January 2015

Members

Stevanus Timothyus (Leader)
Jaryl Chan Jun Xiang
Lim Yi
Ryan Cheong Jia Qiang